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Scholarly and Peer Reviewed Research

Downloadable Content
What Is Neurofeedback: An Update


D. Corydon Hammond

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Written to educate both professionals and the general public, this article provides an update and overview of the field of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback). The process of assessment and neurofeedback training is explained. Then, areas in which neurofeedback is being used as a treatment are identified and a survey of research findings is presented. Potential risks, side effects, and adverse reactions are cited and guidelines provided for selecting a legitimately qualified practitioner.

Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography

D. Corydon Hammond, PhD

Professor, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

University of Utah School of Medicine

D. Allen Novian, PhD, LMFT, LPC-S


Novian Counseling & Consulting INC

"Frank H. Duffy, M.D., Professor and Pediatric Neurologist at Harvard Medical School, stated in an editorial in the January 2000 issue of the journal Clinical Electroencephalography that the scholarly literature suggests that neurofeedback should play a major therapeutic role in many difficult areas. "In my opinion, if any medication had demonstrated such a wide spectrum of efficacy it would be universally accepted and widely used" (p. v). "It is a field to be taken seriously by all" (p. vii)."

How the American Academy of Pediatrics reached the conclusion that EEG Biofeedback, (aka Neurofeedback) is a Level 1 Evidence-Based Practice for Attention and Hyperactivity, and other recent evidence of the efficacy of Neurofeedback for ADHD 

"In October 2012 the American Academy of Pediatrics report on Evidence-based Child and Adolescent Pyschosocial Interventions concluded that for the Attention and Hyperactivity behavioural problems, Biofeedback was a “Level 1 Best Support’ intervention, the highest level of support. 

This document includes the studies that directly led to this conclusion and also includes some additional studies, and summaries of these studies, that may be useful to health professionals, other professionals, parents and adolescents in assessing Neurofeedback as an option."

Neurofeedback With Anxiety and Depression


D. Corydon Hammond

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

"A robust body of research documents that there are biological predispositions that often exist for depression, anxiety, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. However, new research has shown that medication is only mildly more effective than placebo in the treatment of these problems. In treating these conditions, neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) may offer an alternative to invasive treatments such as medication, ECT, and intense levels of transcrancial magnetic stimulation. This paper reviews the neurofeedback literature with these problems, finding particularly positive research support for the treatment of anxiety disorders. New findings on the neurofeedback treatment of depression are presented."

Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Study


D. Corydon Hammond, PhD, ECNS, QEEG-D, BCIA-EEG 

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

"Previous publications have reported encouraging preliminary clinical outcomes in the treatment of a variety of problems with the Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS). However, no previous publication has evaluated outcomes with quantitative EEG (QEEG) comparisons to normative databases. This article presents outcomes from the LENS treatment of a patient who suffered a serious traumatic brain injury 9 years earlier. After 42 sessions of treatment, the patient, now 16 years old, had very significant clinical improvements as well as documented changes in QEEG measures. Further outcome studies involving pre- and posttreat- ment QEEG evaluations are needed."

Notable News Articles

Links to original content included

Brain hacking: The Mind's Biology | The Washington Post

February 19, 2016

The frontier in mental illness treatment: In the struggle over the future of psychiatry, researchers are looking deep within the brain to understand mental illness and find new therapeutic tools.


May 09, 2016

Neurofeedback uses real-time displays of brain activity to teach the brain to self-regulate, a technique neurologists have wielded since the 1960s.

Neurofeedback: Treating the Cause, not the Symptoms

September 15, 2015

"Neurofeedback needs to be presented, not as a cure all, but as another strategic tool in an integrative approach of treatment for dealing with not only the symptoms, but the dysregulated brain, which is the cause of Autism, Concussion, Stroke, Aneurysm, PTSD, PCS, anxiety, memory problems and sleep problems."

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